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Реферирование

Реферирование Реферирование – процесс аналитико-синтетической переработки информации, заключающийся в анализе первичного документа и извлечение из него наиболее важных в смысловом отношении сведений, основных положений, фактических данных, результатов, выводов. Реферирование имеет целью сокращение физического объема первичного документа при сохранении его основного смыслового содержания и представляет собой сложный процесс. Умение реферировать предполагает специальную подготовку. Текст реферата должен отличаться ясностью и конкретностью, четкостью, лаконизмом, то есть отсутствием второстепенной информации: доказательств, рассуждений, описаний, примеров. В нем не должны использоваться громоздкие предложения и сложные грамматические обороты, затрудняющие понимание содержания. Основные этапы реферирования: 1. Ознакомительное чтение, предварительный анализ. Изучение реферируемого документа начинается со знакомства с заглавием, справочным аппаратом издания. 2. Внимательное чтение, углубленный анализ. Исключение несущественных сведений или сведений, не относящихся к основному содержанию документа. 3. Синтез информации, компоновка текста. 4. Реферирование. Клише для реферирования текста 1.Summarize the text you have read. Use the following phrases: 1. The text reports on … 2. A detailed description is given to … 3. Much attention is given to … 4. It is claimed that … 5. It is pointed out that … 2. Summarize the content of the article. Use the phrases: 1. The article provides information on … 2. The paper discusses … 3. A careful account is given to … 4. A comparison of … with … is made. 5. It is assumed that … 3. Summarize the content of the text. Use the phrases: 1. The article reports on … 2. It is shown that … 3. It is pointed out that … 4. The methods used for … are discussed … 5. The article puts forward the idea … 6. The paper is of interest / no particular interest. 7. The article is of great interest / no particular interest. 4. Summarize the article using the following phrases: 1. The objective of the system is … 2. It is recognized that … 3. The article suggests the problem … 4. The article contains the most up-to-date information on … 5. The article touches upon … 6. The effect of … on … is discussed. 7. Of particular interest is … UNIT 1 WHY FORESTS NEED FIRES By Alex Kirby (BBC News Online environment correspondent), 5 December, 2002 The bush fires raging across swathes of New South Wales are terrifying. For people in the areas ablaze they spell disruption at least, the prospect of losing their homes, and the possibility of death. For wild species, like kangaroos and koalas, death on a large scale is already a reality. Yet the fires may offer benefits to the forests in the longer term. No forest has ever existed without having to cope with periodic fires. The Stale Forests of New South Wales website says: “Fire is very much a natural part of many Australian ecosystems. The Aborigines used fire on a regular basis, and had a profound influence on vegetation. Since the exclusion of Aboriginal burning, many areas of forest have undergone a change, particularly in the understorey”. No trees without fire «Many areas which were once quite open and grassy now contain thickets of shrubs and vines.» Fires are a natural way of clearing old growth, causing organic matter to decompose rapidly into mineral components which fuel rapid plant growth, and recycling essential nutrients, especially nitrogen. Some trees cannot survive without periodic blazes. Lodgepole and jack pines are serotinous species — their cones open and their seeds germinate only after they have been exposed to fire. In Australia, the mountain ash, a flowering tree that grows in temperate areas, needs a site to be thoroughly burnt and to be exposed to full sunlight before it can regenerate. Some eucalyptus species arc largely fire-resistant but can help a fire to spread, shedding their bark when they burn and releasing flammable oils from their leaves. Forests adapt themselves to relatively small intermittent fires. But when policymakers try to suppress fires altogether, they encourage the accumulation of dead growth and allow new species to establish themselves. When a fire does start, it finds more fuel to sustain itself than would normally be there. Trapped by the flames Some critics say opposition by environmental groups to any controlled burning in forests encourages combustible growth to accumulate and intensify any fires that do start. They argue that forests need active management, including deliberate fires as a form of pruning. But if the forest flora stand to make some gains from the flames, it is a different story for much of the fauna. The Australian Koala Foundation says that the survival rate of koalas depends on the intensity of the fire. Even when flames do not reach the canopy of the trees, they may suffer paw burns when they come to ground to change trees and tread on the smouldering, hot ground. They may also suffer from smoke inhalation and exposure due to the loss of foliage. They are fussy eaters and if the trees they like are burnt they may find it difficult to find replacements. Many perish when they climb to the treetops to escape the fire, while others starve when their food supplies are destroyed. The most common natural cause of forest fires is probably lightning, though globally most fires; are started by people. Increase your vocabulary: swathe [sweð] — large area of land ablaze — be ablaze – to be burning with a lot of flames thicket — a group of bushes and small trees shrub — a small bush nutrients — a chemical or food that provides what is needed for plants nitrogen [‘naıtrǝʤǝn] to germinate — to begin to grow shedding — lighting the area around combustible — able to burn easily deliberate — planned or intended pruning — to get rid of the unnecessary parts of something foliage — the leaves of a plant to perish — to die, especially in a terrible or sudden way SUMMARY The article “Why forests need fires” by Alex Kirby has been published on BBC News web¬site. It provides information on fires as a natural part of local ecosystems. This problem is quite important today, and the information about it is limited. The article consists of three parts: an introduction and two main parts that describe the influence of fires on local flora and fauna. “Why forests need-fires” doesn’t have a conclusion, because the article is a set of different facts and professors’ opinions on the problem. The preamble introduces the problem of conflagrations to the reader and states that no forest has ever existed without having to cope with periodic fires. The main idea of the first part is that conflagrations can be a natural part of local ecosystem, and like every phenomenon that has been evolving for thousand years it can cause some positive consequences. The second part describes the influence of fires on local flora. The Author claims that in some cases conflagrations can clean the forest and free the way for younger and stronger vegetative life. The Author argues that there are many plants that help fires to spread. For instance, some eucalyptus species have flammable oil in their leaves. The last part of the article reveals horrible effects of forest fires on local fauna: starvation, drought, skin burns and etc. If it is possible to find something positive in conflagrations for vegetative life, it is obvious that for birds and animals fires are worse than death. As a whole the article is of particular interest. The concept of positive consequences caused by fire has been a great surprise for me and the information about the plants that help fires to spread is of great value. I suppose that the author examined all issue of the problem. I believe “Why forests need fires” is worth the reader’s attention to observe. UNIT 2 This story was printed from Anchordesk, located at http://reviews-zdnet.com. com/AnchorDesk/2001-6033_16-0. html?tag=adpf. PHOTO PRINTERS: ARE THEY WORTH THE EXTRA COST? By Jessica Kashiwabara: Contributing Editor, AnchorDesk Thursday, December 18, 2003 Digital cameras are great because they allow you to take lots of pictures without paying for film and to easily post pics on the Web. But what about when you want prints made? You could, of course, get prints from a professional developer. But if you’re interested in doing it yourself, a photo printer is a viable option. WHEN SHOPPING for a photo printer, the first thing you’ll probably notice is that it can cost as much as $200 more than your average color inkjet. So what are you paying extra for? And is that a smart investment? To get some answers, I talked to our resident printer expert, Robert Vamosi. He says the main things that distinguish photo printers from regular inkjets are the special ink cartridges they use. These inks are designed to provide better halftones, which are necessary to reproduce photographs. Standard inkjets, he says, «just aren’t that sophisticated.» In addition, photo inkjets are better at reproducing detail and use more ink colors than standard printers; those extra colors will often include more than one shade of a basic hue, like black. Some also use specialized printer technologies that are optimized for photo output. Canon, for example, has begun to use dye-sublimation technology in some of its photo printers. This means the printer heats and applies layers of colored wax to the photo paper, instead of droplets of ink, creating a smooth, film-like look. The portable Canon CP-300 is one of the first models to use this technology. Another perk: Many photo printers come with media card readers so you can print photos directly from your digital camera. Of course, if you don’t need the extras, a standard color inkjet is capable of printing decent photos. A photo printer will just do a better job. BEFORE YOU BUY a photo printer, make sure it’s compatible with high-quality inks and papers. Premium glossy finish or heavyweight matte finish papers will produce the crispest images. Also, check that the printer churns out high-resolution prints; a good inkjet should have a resolution of 2400 dots per inch (dpi), while a dye-sub model should offer 300dpi. But don’t rely solely on the numbers. Because other factors (such as color gradation) affect how your photos will look, you should evaluate the image-quality of prints made on a particular model whenever possible, or see what our testers say about real-world results in our reviews. Photo printers aren’t one-trick ponies. They can output text and graphics, too. In fact, most photo printers pass our labs’ text and graphics tests with flying colors. It should be noted, however, that printer makers consider photo models to be used primarily for-as their name implies-photos, so they don’t place as much emphasis on how well text and other graphics perform. As far as cost, the extra dollars for the printer are not all you’ll spend. You’ll also have to pay for paper and ink, which historically aren’t cheap. But they have come down in price somewhat. According to Vamosi, you can print 4×6-inch images with a photo printer for between 32 to 56 cents per image – close to what you’ll pay at drug stores and other commercial developers. I. Increase your vocabulary: developer — a chemical substance used for developing photographs viable [‘vaıǝbǝl] — able to continue to live, can work successfully inkjet printer — an electronic printer, usually connected to a small computer hue — a color or kind of colour to give something a different colour dye-sublimation — the process of changing a solid substance to a gas by heating it and then changing it back to a solid in order to make it pure decent — acceptable and good enough matte — not shiny to churn out — to produce large quantities of something II. Read the text. Find the best way to complete the sentences: 1. Digital cameras are great because … 2. The main things that distinguish photo printers from regular inkjets are … 3. Photo inkjets are better at … 4. Many photo printers come with media card readers so … 5. A standard color inkjet is capable of … III. Compress the following sentence: In addition, photo inkjets are better at reproducing detail and use more ink colors than standard printers; those extra colors will often include more than one shade of a basic hue, like black. IV. Paraphrase the following sentences: 1. Because other factors (such as color gradation) affect how your photos will look, you should evaluate the image-quality of prints made on a particular model whenever possible, or see what our testers say about real-world results in our reviews. 2. It should be noted, however, that printer makers consider photo models to be used primarily for-as their name implies-photos, so they don’t place as much emphasis on how well text and other graphics perform. V. Summarize the text you have read. Use the following phrases: 6. The text reports on … 7. A detailed description is given to … 8. Much attention is given to … 9. It is claimed that … 10. It is pointed out that …

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