Жаңа сабақтар

Differentiated approach to teaching English

Атырау облысы Атырау қаласы

Облыстық дарынды балаларға арналған мектеп-интернаты

Ағылшын тілі пәні мұғалімі

Губайдуллина Гүлмира Муратовна

Баяндама тақырыбы: «Differentiated approach to teaching English»

Introduction

Foreign languages are becoming a major factor in the socio-economic and cultural progress of society. Foreign language performs a huge role in shaping the personality and improve the education because through it you can get direct access to the spiritual wealth of another country, to allow direct communication with representatives of other Nations. Therefore, it is not surprising that interest in foreign languages, mainly English, has increased significantly in our country recently. Now knowledge of two or more languages is an undeniable attribute of any modern highly educated person.

Foreign language proficiency has become a real need, without it is impossible to get a high-paying job and build a successful career. New political and socio-economic changes in Russia in recent decades, its desire to actively and fruitfully cooperate with Western countries significantly influenced the expansion of the function of a foreign language as a subject and led to rethinking the goals, objectives and content of teaching foreign languages. The new political environment, the expansion of international cooperation and international contacts today require a deeper knowledge of a foreign language.

In the methodology of teaching languages, there are different approaches to learning a foreign language: language, speech activity, direct, conscious, socio-cultural, personality-oriented. Training should be differentiated if the teacher seriously wants to use personality-oriented technologies.

A significant contribution to the development of theoretical bases of process of the differentiated education of students has made scientists methodologists: Vygotsky L. S., Davydov V. V., Leontiev A. N., Babanskij IU. K., Esipov B. P., L. V. Zankov currently, the intensive research in the field of differentiated instruction and develop a specific technology of multi-level learning.

However, in the practice of teaching a foreign language, contradictions often arise between the practical significance of multi-level teaching in foreign language lessons in high school and its systematic implementation in the educational process.

These contradictions determine the problem of research: the search for ways to use a multi-level approach to learning a foreign language.

Abstract

Subject of study: a differentiated approach to learning a foreign language in high school.

The purpose of the study: to reveal the essence of the concept of differentiated learning, its goals, objectives and consider the types and forms of differentiated learning.

The hypothesis of the study: the use of differentiated learning in English lessons will allow to obtain higher learning outcomes, that is, to improve the quality of knowledge of each student by solving multi-level tasks.

Research methods: theoretical analysis of psychological and pedagogical, linguistic and methodical literature on the research problem; generalization of pedagogical experience, analysis, synthesis, interpretation.

Expected result:

-raising attainment and the level of training of students, motivation for studying the subject:

-development, training and work programs, scripts, extra-curricular activities with ICT:

  • development of didactic materials, tests, illustrations:
  • development and conduct of open lessons, workshops, lessons learned on the topic, presentations, presentations at meetings of the Ministry of defense:

  • participation in competitions and conferences with self-knowledge of experience.

Chapter 1. Differentiated teaching of a foreign language in the educational process

1.1 The content of the concept «differentiated (multi-level) training», its goals and objectives

Work in the context of multi-level differentiation gives each teacher the opportunity to creative solutions of pedagogical problems, the use of non-standard approaches in learning and development, the disclosure of talents of teachers and students in joint activities. The teacher became more comfortable working in classes that are based on deep psycho-physiological diagnostics, taking into account the state of health, abilities and capabilities of children. In the context of multi-level differentiation, he does not have to spend a lot of effort and energy in the course of the lesson to simultaneously and effectively teach weak, medium and strong children within the same class. Differentiation in Latin «difference» means division, stratification of the whole into different parts, forms, steps. And what does differentiated instruction?

I. P. Podlasie says that differentiated instruction is the maximum the capabilities and needs of children. And G. K. Selevko considers differentiated training as a form of organization of educational process, in which the teacher works with a group of students, compiled taking into account the presence of any significant for the scientific process of common qualities.

A differentiated approach to students ensures success in teaching, which leads to awakening interest in the subject, the desire to acquire new knowledge, develop the ability of students. Multi-level training is a pedagogical technology of the educational process, within which it is assumed that the level of mastering of educational material is different, that is, the depth and complexity of the same educational material is different in groups of level, which makes it possible for each student to master the educational material on individual subjects of the educational program at a different level, but not lower than the basic, depending on the abilities and individual characteristics of each student.

Multi-level training provides a chance to each child to organize his studies so that maximum use of their capabilities, primarily academic; the level differentiation allows you to focus the attention of the teacher at work with different categories of children.[28]

According To V. V. Guzeev, a supporter of three-level differentiation, the optimal allocation of three levels of student learning: level 1 — starting, or minimum (a).

Reveals the most important, fundamental, and at the same time the simplest in each topic, provides a mandatory minimum, which allows you to create a partial, but necessarily complete picture of the basic concepts. Students ‘ assignments at this level meet the minimum educational standards. If students, focusing the tutorial on random signs (recognition, recall) choose tasks of reproductive character, decide formulaic, repetitive, previously parsed task, for the performance of such tasks, they put a mark «satisfactory». 2 level of-basic, or overall (in). Expanding material-level 1, proves, illustrates and basic knowledge, shows the application of the concepts. This level increases the amount of information that can provide insight into the basic material, makes the overall picture more complete. Requires in-depth knowledge of the concept system, the ability to solve problems within the course. If students can use the method of obtaining certain facts, focusing on local features inherent in groups of similar objects and conducting an appropriate analysis of the facts, solve problems that can be divided into subtasks with an explicit type of relationship, then get a mark of «good». 3 level-advanced (C).

Significantly enhances the material, giving its rationale, opens prospects for creative applications. This level allows the child to Express themselves in additional independent work. It requires the ability to solve problems in the course and related courses by setting goals and choosing a programme of action/

At the same time, the Central idea of basic education is realized — the student’s knowledge of himself as a person, an individual, a personality, as a subject of relations with the world.

A differentiated approach to teaching a foreign language at school is aimed at achieving the following goals:

1) General Education:

• deepening of knowledge;

• the extension of linguistics, Philology, and General Outlook.

2) Practical:

  • mastering receptive and productive types of speech activity at the minimum sufficient level of communicative competence.

3) Developing:

  • development of language, intellectual and cognitive abilities;
  • development of value orientations, feelings, emotional readiness for communication;

  • • personal development.

    The use of multi-level learning helps the teacher achieve the following goals:

    1. Arouse interest in the subject by using basic level assignments that allow you to work according to your individual abilities.
  • To form abilities to carry out independent activity on a sample.

  • Develop a sustainable interest in the subject.

  • Consolidate and repeat the existing knowledge and methods of action.

  • To develop imagination, associative thinking, to open creative opportunities, to improve the language skills of students.

  • The teacher’s task is to overcome uniformity, shift the emphasis from the group of students to the personality of each of them with its individual capabilities and interests, creating conditions for the development of cognitive activity and independence. [6]

    Differentiated training helps to reveal individuality, to help it to develop, to stand, to appear, to gain selectivity and resistance to social influences. Multi-level training is reduced to the identification and maximum development of the makings and abilities of each student. It is essential that the overall level of education in secondary schools should be the same for all. The differentiated organization of educational activity on the one hand takes into account the level of mental development, psychological characteristics of students. On the other hand, individual requests of the individual, his / her capabilities and interests are taken into account.

    Well thought-out introduction of differentiation in the educational process allows to solve the following problems:

    • to prevent gaps in students ‘ knowledge, abilities and skills, to level the degree of preparation of the entire class;
  • develop students ‘ abilities and interests;

  • improve the quality of knowledge;

  • make better use of everyone’s study time;

  • engage all students in active, intense mental activity;

  • bridge the gap between front-end teaching methods and the individual nature of knowledge;

    • to improve the efficiency and quality of education;

    • to create a situation of success in learning for each student;

    1. 2 Types and forms of multi-level training

    In recent years, the educational space is rapidly gaining personality-oriented training. Such training is based on the principle of variability, i.e. recognition of the diversity of the content and forms of the educational process, the choice of which makes the teacher taking into account the development of each student. Modern children are waiting for new forms of acquaintance with the material, where their independence and active nature of thinking could appear. The use of multi-level tasks in training is very important.

    There are the following types of work in the multi-level teaching of a foreign language:

    • cards; tests; texts; textbook; handouts; work at the Board; different versions of the same type of tasks; tasks of varying degrees of complexity.

    For example, when working with the textbook, the children of group B is given the task to make an answer plan for the read, at this time with the students of group C are looking for answers in the textbook to the questions put to the text, the children of the group, and make generalizations and conclusions.

    Tasks of varying degrees of complexity can be used in this way. The teacher asks all the job the same difficulties and differencial for each group number information indicating how to do it: for the group, And only goal for the group In — some points which should pay attention to the group — detailed instructions of the assignment.

    There are the following forms of multi-level training:

    At reading:

    • division of texts into 3 levels of difficulty;

    • additional task to the text;
  • drafting questions to the text;

  • information cards.

  • When listening:

    • division of texts into 3 levels of difficulty;

    • re-listen to the recording.

    When speaking:

    • division of texts into 3 levels of difficulty;

    • brief retelling of the text;
  • discussion of the text in pairs;

  • Express your attitude to the read.

  • When writing:

    • preparation of a monologue;
  • drawing up a dialogue;

  • • writing a story on the picture

    • error correction;

    • division of tasks into 3 difficulty levels.

    When selecting foreign language material, the following factors must be observed: the interests of students and the allocation of two levels — the level of presentation and the level of demand for material. The level of demand is slightly lower than the level of presentation, as the opportunities and needs of students are taken into account. This allows for a differentiated approach to students, puts them in a situation of choice, encourages greater independence and activity.

    To implement the ideas of multi-level training, you can enter cards with individual tasks, develop didactic handouts in accordance with the abilities of students.

    It is known that students with a high level of learning have increased efficiency, chain memory, organization, the ability to constantly maintain attention in the classroom. Based on this, it is necessary to build the learning process so that strong students were constant assistants to the teacher in the classroom.

    In order to achieve the greatest speech activity of students should often use group forms of work in the classroom, which are recognized in the domestic methodology and abroad as one of the ways to improve the effectiveness of modern foreign language lessons.

    The organization of group communication should take place in an atmosphere of cooperation, friendliness and trust. The authoritarian style of the teacher will cause a negative reaction of students (E. I. Passes).

    The important advantages of group work in a foreign language lesson include the following:

    • in the conditions of group work, there is a favorable for teaching trusting, emotionally positive atmosphere in the classroom: fear of academic failure disappears (together it is easier to find a solution, you do not know yourself — classmates will explain or help), students ‘ confidence in their own abilities increases («I also know and can do it»);

    • when working in groups, the problem of shyness, stiffness of some students is solved, because they feel more comfortable in terms of mutual learning and mutual control, when they can consult or seek help from classmates. Such interaction promotes increase of communicative and cognitive motivation, emergence of desire to study in General;

    group work allows to involve all students in the group in the learning process (increasing the residence time of each student in a foreign environment), provides a permanent, continuous verbal interaction of students, which is especially important in the English language in pursuit of communicative purpose of the lesson;

    • in the course of group interaction, students develop General educational skills (the ability to listen, observe a certain order of discussion, argue their consent and disagreement, draw conclusions, summarize what has been said) and compensatory skills (the use of lexical paraphrase, replacing complex grammatical structures with more common, the ability to seek help from reference materials);

    Very important is the question of the formation of groups, which involves the implementation of a differentiated approach to students, taking into account their individual-typological characteristics (for example, the type of temperament, the rate of mastery of educational material, the depth of acquired knowledge, the ability to independently apply skills or share their knowledge, etc.) [57]

    Group work helps a foreign language teacher to create a «language environment» in the classroom, i.e. conditions that approach those in which people speak a foreign language in a natural setting.

    The use of a differentiated approach in teaching a foreign language in a modern school involves the development of creative abilities of students by finding effective methods and teaching methods. The problem of students ‘ creativity has become especially urgent at the present time-during the modernization of Russian education.

    Chapter 2. Teaching a foreign language through multi-level education

    2.1 multi-Level tasks in a foreign language lesson

    Multi-level differentiation for teaching all types of speech activity is the most effective, because personality-oriented training involves taking into account the differences in the bulk of students in the level of learning material. Multi-level tasks are an important means of teaching and education, aimed at the development of mental and creative activity of students, their interest in the study of the subject.

    Under the differentiated task «the task addressed to these or those pupils taking into account their features, level of readiness, orientation of the personality» (I. p. Makhova’s definition) is considered. As pointed out by I. P. Macha, it must meet the following main indicators:

    corresponds to the modern content of the subject, in relation to the school curriculum;

    • ensures the development of knowledge and creates conditions for the formation of methods of activity;
  • provides for the development of mental activity and creates the necessary conditions for the development of cognitive independence; [122]

  • involves the development of value relations to the world and activities in accordance with the established criteria of complexity

  • In conclusion, I would like to emphasize that the implementation of a differentiated approach in teaching a foreign language requires a teacher of great art. It must take into account the real conditions prevailing in the class, and capabilities of each student, in any case without prejudice to the dignity and interests of each of them.

    2.2 Group work at a lesson of foreign language

    For decades, the school and scientific and pedagogical thought covered the search for ways to improve the effectiveness of the educational process aimed at the creative development of children.

    Psychological researches of D. B. Elkonin, V. V. Davydov, V. V. Rubtsov and others have shown efficiency of group forms of the organization of work of children at a lesson. The task of the school is to teach children to make a joint educational activity by the formula of L. S. Vygotsky: «he will Learn, when you learn the other.» For this purpose it is required to form from the pupil the subject of activity, that is such pupil who would feel at a lesson the active Creator, but not the passive performer.

    The task of a foreign language teacher is to ensure the active activity of each student throughout the lesson, the maximum increase in the speaking time of each student. The group form of work allows to realize this task. It also contributes to the formation of skills and efforts of independent work of students in mastering a foreign language.

    The group form of work is used in teaching students oral speech and reading. There are three or four permanent groups in the class, the composition of which varies from time to time. Each group has a consultant from among well-performing pupils who helps the group. Inclusion in each group of children with good knowledge allows a weak student to get help that he may need when performing the task.

    Effective group work in the training of dialogical speech. For example, when working on the topic «My house», the guys are given this setting: imagine that one of your friends got a new apartment. You are interested to learn more about the apartment. (The cards of that particular phrase, which is necessary to make a coherent conversation).

    As a result of group work, students form a dialogue that is played out aloud. Because the other groups received the same job, they can see if the job was completed correctly during the scan. If necessary, amendments can be made.

    Conclusion

    The differentiated (multi-level) approach in teaching a foreign language not only enables students to study the topic more deeply, but also significantly expands their general outlook, teaches communication, the ability to independently produce and select the necessary material, makes it possible to develop not only collective creativity, but also individual talents and abilities of students.

    The generalization of pedagogical experience assures that the development of communicative skills is the main component in teaching students foreign languages. The level approach most clearly reflects the level of mastery of students ‘ communication skills.

    Thus, it can be concluded that differentiated (multi-level) training is currently the most harmonious and relevant from the point of view of modern methodology.

    References

    1. Aliyev, N. H. The choice of characteristics of students in differential foreign language teaching / / Foreign languages at school.

    2. Efficiency Of application of the project technique in teaching a foreign language [Electronic resource] / O. M. Astrakhankina

    3. Afanas’eva, N. V. Personal approach to learning [Text] /N. Afanasyeva // the School psychologist. PR. to «PS». — 2001. — No. 32. — [P. 6-10.]

    4. Berezin, S. I. Multi-level training in the English language [Electronic resource] / S. I. Berezina

    5. Galikova, N. D., Shapovalov V. M. Forms and types of differentiated teaching// Foreign languages at school. 1987, No. 4. – [P. 57-60.]

    6. Gottlieb, R. A. the Social demand for knowledge of a foreign language/by R. A. Gottlieb/Sociological researches, № 2, 2009. [P. 122-127.]

    7. Zaripova, L. E. Differential control of listening in English language teaching [Electronic resource] / L. E. Zaripova

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